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  • 11/28/13--08:20: 120VAC to 5VDC
  • How would I go about converting 120VAC to 5VDC?

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  • 11/28/13--06:45: Kinetis Series Overview
  • Freescale’s Kinetis series represents ARM Cortex-M based microcontroller products offered by Freescale. There are several families under the Kinetis series, all focused on different segments of the microcontroller landscape.



    A more detailed breakdown of the Kinetis families is below:

    Name Description ARM Cortex M4 ARM Cortex M0+ Product Guide
    Kinetis K High Performance & Rich Integration x Click Here
    Kinetis L Ultra-Low Power and Smallest Packages (includes the KL02, the world’s smallest ARM powered MCU) x Click Here
    Kinetis E 5V Robustness
    x Click Here
    Kinetis M Electricity metering and other precision measurement applications
    x Click Here
    Kinetis W Wireless Features with Integrated RF Connectivity x x


    Kinetis Part Numbering:

    Inside of each family, you’ll notice that families have names like KE02, or K10, or KL46.


    The first digit signifies at a high level the main features of the chip:

    Part Number



    Basic peripheral set


    Standard peripheral set


    Adds USB


    Adds segment LCD


    Adds both USB and segment LCD


    Adds special analog features (ie for medical), Ethernet, USB, and Segment LCD


    Adds Ethernet, HS/FS USB*, DDR*, FPU*, and NAND*


    Adds LCD Controller, Ethernet, HS USB, DDR, FPU, and NAND

    (*only 120/150MHz K60 devices have HS USB, DDR, FPU, and NAND)

    Note that the definition of "basic/standard peripheral set" differs depending on the family. But the chart demonstrates what the major differences between a KL46 and a KL16 would be for example. Also as the numbers increase, the flash and package size options tend to go up in order to support those extra features.


    The second digit signifies different features, versions, and memory/package options. The exact meaning of the digit varies between families and for each particular part. As an example, the KL26 differs from the KL25 by adding I2S support, increasing memory size, and changing the SPI module from 8-bit to 16-bit. See the particular device’s data sheet for details on a part you are interested in. Similarly there are different features based on the frequency of the device. As an example, a K60 120MHz part has NAND Flash support available, while a K60 100MHz part does not.


    There’s a very handy tool called the MCU Solutions Advisor that can help you narrow down which Kinetis part is right for your particular application and requirements.


    Also check out the Freescale ARM Embedded Solutions Guide for full details on Freescale’s entire ARM portfolio, including the i.MX and Vybrid families for those who need even more performance and multiple cores.


    Kinetis Evaluation Platforms:

    There are two main evaluation platforms for Kinetis devices: Tower and Freedom. Some devices (like the K20 family) are available on both platforms, while others are only available on one or the other. The biggest difference is the form-factor, which influences the expandability and features found on each board.


    Tower boards are larger, and often have more features built onto the board. They are also compatible with the numerous Tower peripheral boards. Many of the Kinetis K devices found on Tower boards have a significant number of IO pins on them, so the tower form-factor allows access to these.


    Freedom boards on the other hand have a smaller, Arduino compatible form-factor, enabling them to use the thousands of shields available today. They’re low power and perfect for low-cost evaluation, and enable you to get quickly started with your design with easy to use programming and debugging via OpenSDA. There are several Freedom boards to choose from based on your particular needs.


    Kinetis Information, Features, and Enablement:

    Kinetis K Overview

    Kinetis L Overview

    Complimentary MQX and MQX-Lite Overview

    Complimentary Processor Expert Drivers Overview

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    Been using Eagle for a while but by no means an expert. And there are probably a few ways to do what I want to do and searching for a solution on the Internet ain't giving me much.


    I've got a standard power supply circuit which I use on various boards. At present I import it into each new design as a schematic sheet. So I can import that as sheet one and leave it there. This becomes a drag as although it's there I have to layout all the components of the Power Supply on the Board every time for every new design. I've just decided that I'd save time if I lay that out and bring that into every new design. I was just about to put it into a Library as a new device when I wondered is that even the right way to solve that problem? I probably could not even put it in a library as I'd be pulling in standard diodes and capacitors and other components which is not what the library does.


    Hmm best solution?

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  • 11/28/13--09:18: Micro-MaTch Connectors
  • TE Connectivity’s (TE) Micro-MaTch connectors’ spring connection can extend the life of  your device and offer a unique solution for your high vibration applications by preventing fretting corrosion through a spring-design contact. With a centerline of 1.27mm, Micro- MaTch connectors fully comply with the electronic packaging requirements of today and the future.


    • Aircraft Interiors

    • InFlight Entertainment

    • Environmental Controls

    • Unmanned Systems

    • Communication systems

    • Production equipment

    • Robots and motors

    • Control cabinets

    • Monitoring

    • Material handling

    • Pumps

    • Drivers

    • Automotive systems



    • Contact spring design prevents fretting corrosion and allows for cost-effective, longer-lasting connection.

    • High force contact system eliminates unnecessary movement in high-vibration applications.

    • Product breadth provides variety of product design.

    • Unique to manufacturing capabilities with full range of application tooling.

    • Insulation displacement contact (IDC) allows for labor cost savings.

    • Polarization pin and audible snaplatch supports alignment and prevents mismating.


    Customers who use this product also use:

    Corcom FB series.JPGmini IO connectors.JPG  Universal Mate N-lock.JPGCoolSplite.JPG

    For further information about the products please contact our PIC.

    © 2013 Tyco Electronics Corporation, a TE Connectivity
    Ltd. Company. All Rights Reserved. TE Connectivity and TE connectivity (logo) are trademarks

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    Hello FRDM-KL25Z buyer


    You are already thousands of customers who ordered this board.

    In order to make your life easier, with a single place where to find relevant informations concerning this tool, I will try to collect in this post the answered questions concerning FRDM-KL25Z, found in different places like Freescale community, groups from Element14 Community or anywhere on the web ...


    I will publish regularly (in the document section from this group) some very instructive tutorials produced by my colleague Erich Styger, which should help you to take in hand FRDM-KL25Z and its software tools (Codewarrior 10.3beta, Processor Expert ...).


    Don't hesitate to post here your new questions that we can answer it and share it with the community.

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    Current Sensing resistors are designed for low resistance so as to minimize power consumption.


    In order to meet the requirements of the market Panasonic offers a wide range of Current Sensing Resistors in many case sizes (0402 to 2512), many resistance values in different technologies.

    Metal plate technology (ERJM-series) and special constructions makes them suitable for the harsh environment while maintaining their high reliability.

    Double sided resistor element technology (ERJxBW-series) & wide terminal technology (ERJA, ERJB-series) for high power purpose:





    Furthermore Panasonic Current Sensing Resistors correspond to AEC-Q200 and therefore are ideal solution for all different kind of automotive applications.


    Please check as well: ERJM03NF10MV - PANASONIC - RESISTOR, LOW R, 0.01OHM, +/-1 | Farnell UK


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    If you have any questions about PAN17xx Series just write here.

    This Bluetooth Smart Series covers...


    Check out the difference on the versions in our video: Ask the Engineers :: PAN1720 vs PAN1720BR

    and take a look into our webinar: Bluetooth Smart Integration Made Easy


    For the latest documentation please visit our website:

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  • 11/28/13--06:01: Turkey takes RoHS and WEEE
  • Turkey has integrated provisions from both the EU RoHS1 (2002/95/EC)  and WEEE1 (2002/96/EC) Directives further aligning Turkish law with EU environmental policy. The substance restrictions are the same six as in the EU with identical maximum permitted concentration levels in homogeneous material.


    Turkey looks to minimise dangerous levels of WEEE and ensure the prevention of WEEE from the initial design stage of production. Emphasis has been placed on improving waste disposal, collection units and logistical services.


    Once an upgraded system of collection has been established then the Producer can be charged with responsibility for recycling and reuse.




    • Registerwith element14 to be able to receive the latest EU WEEE Directive legislation updates


    • Found the information, now get the part! Visit our online store


    • Got an opinion you want to share? Leave your comments below

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  • 11/28/13--06:41: Win a LEGO MINDSTORMS EV3
  • Participate in the joint competition of Farnell element14 and Panasonic Industrial...

    ...simply tell us what you would do if you owned a Panasonic Classic Bluetooth Module!




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    All the pictures shown and the documentation show that the 5V switching power supply section is not populated (or not fit), why ?


    Are there any plans to produce and sell a version of the board that includes the power supply section ?


    Thanks & Regards


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    Scratch project file created based on the Scratch demo shown in the PiFace documentation:


    "Controlling Pi Face with Scratch"


    See below under Attachments the file .  Download the file and unzip it.  Scratch should be able to open  Note: you will first need to follow the instructions in the "Controlling Pi Face with Scratch" link above to get Scratch setup correctly.  (This involves starting a Mesh session and then running the PiFace handler script to connect to the Mesh session.  This allows Scratch to interact with the PiFace.)








    For Amazing BrainTeaser contest entries - please post the answer here to enter giveaway:

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    Good day comrades!

    Let's talk today about the next stage on the road to success, namely about the EEPROM emulation.


    You're probably thinking, why is this guy spending so much time working on software changing almost nothing in the hardware?

    The answer is simple: I still have not received a parcel from HobbyKing and not only that, they even didn't give me the track number!

    But we will not dwell on this, because I believe that tricopter will be built in time


    So let's go! An important part of the software for a tri or quadcopters is the non-volatile memory for storage of configuration. In the AVR-based MultiWii we use EEPROM as the most suitab.PSoC has the ability to emulate EEPROM memory, for this purpose there is a special unit which is a nothing else but the API to access the flash memory of the controller, which, like the EEPROM is non-volatile.


    Today PSoC's schematics look like this:



    Like the last time, here is a piece of code that I use to work with virtual EEPROM:


    1. Copying data from one memory area to another (I wrote this function with the use of "volatile uint8", as recommended by Cypress):

    void toMem(void *des, const void *src, uint8_t size)
    {    uint8_t i;    uint8_t *cdes = (uint8_t *) des;    for (i=0; i<size; i++) *cdes++ = *((volatile uint8_t *) src + i);


    2. Read data from EEPROM to RAM (for more details see original MultiWii source code).  "static const uint8_t eep_array[64]" variable locate in flash memory (it's a virtual EEPROM):

    void readEEPROM(void)
    {  uint8_t i, _address = eep_entry[0].size;  for(i=1; i<EEBLOCK_SIZE; i++)  {    toMem(eep_entry[i].var, &eep_array[_address], eep_entry[i].size);    _address += eep_entry[i].size;  }  for(i=0;i<7;i++) lookupRX[i] = (2500+rcExpo8*(i*i-25))*i*(int32_t)rcRate8/1250;


    3. Write data from RAM to EERPOM:

    void writeParams(void)
    {    uint8_t d = EEBLOCK_SIZE;    uint8_t i, _address = 0, data_array[64];    for(i=0; i<EEBLOCK_SIZE; i++)    {        toMem(&data_array[_address], eep_entry[i].var, eep_entry[i].size);        _address += eep_entry[i].size;    }    d = sizeof(data_array);    vEEPROM_Write(data_array,eep_array,sizeof(data_array));    readEEPROM();


    4. "after first turn on" function:

    void checkFirstTime(void)
    {    uint8_t i, test_val = *(volatile uint8_t *) eep_array;    if (test_val == checkNewConf) return;    P8[ROLL]      = 40; I8[ROLL]    = 30; D8[ROLL]    = 23;    P8[PITCH]    = 40; I8[PITCH]    = 30; D8[PITCH]    = 23;    P8[YAW]      = 85; I8[YAW]      =  0;  D8[YAW]    =  0;    P8[PIDALT]    = 16; I8[PIDALT]  = 15;  D8[PIDALT]  =  7;    P8[PIDGPS]    = 50; I8[PIDGPS]  =  0;  D8[PIDGPS]  = 15;    P8[PIDVEL]    =  0; I8[PIDVEL]  =  0;  D8[PIDVEL]  =  0;    P8[PIDLEVEL]  = 90; I8[PIDLEVEL] = 45; D8[PIDLEVEL] = 100;    P8[PIDMAG]    = 40; rcRate8      = 45; rcExpo8      = 65;    rollPitchRate =  0; yawRate      =  0; dynThrPID    =  0;    for(i=0;i<CHECKBOXITEMS;i++)    {        activate1[i] = 0;        activate2[i] = 0;    }    accTrim[0] = 0; accTrim[1] = 0; powerTrigger1 = 0;    writeParams();


    And lastly, the main function (for a better understanding of each of it's functions, I recommend you read my previous posts in this blog):


    void main()
    {    tikInit();    eepromInit();    checkFirstTime();    SerialOpen(0,115200);    readEEPROM();    configureReceiver();    CyGlobalIntEnable;    for(;;)    {        computeRC();        serialCom();    }


    So, let us examine the steps, how our software is working at the moment:

    1. The configuration of all the systems (UpTime, EEPROM, Serial, RX);
    2. After initialization of the EEPROM we test the "is it a first running of the system?" if Yes, the defaulte date is recorded in the EEPROM;
    3. After configuration we turn on the global interrupts;
    4. In the main loop we read the data from RX and trying to communicate PSoC with PC-program;
    5. If PC-program requests the data - we try to transmitt it via UART;
    6. If PC-program suggests to write the data to EEPROM, the PSoC tryint to get it and write it to EEPROM via writeParams() function


    Below you can see the animation of the work with EEPROM you can review the content of every slide:

    1. Loading firmware to PSoC;
    2. Launching the PC-program;
    3. Connecting to the PSoC via UART
    4. Correction of the data (RC RATE and EXPO by this example)
    5. Writing data to the EEPROM (WRITE button)
    6. Turning off the PSoC development board (COM7 is escaped)
    7. Turning on the PSoC back (COM7 is come back)
    8. Connecting to PSoC...
    9. ...and reading the data



    As you can see, the data was successfully wrote to EEPROM and read back again after voltage brownout!

    Next week I plan to realise motor's control function and this means that the moment of the first field trials is coming soon!


    See you next week!



    # link description
    1 PSoC 4 Tricopter Part #1 Introduction
    2 PSoC 4 Tricopter Part #2 Purchase of components from Farnell and HobbyKing
    3 PSoC 4 Tricopter Part #3 PSoC firmware: upTime and Rx
    4 PSoC 4 Tricopter Part #4 PSoC firmware: UART + MultiWii GUI
    5 PSoC 4 Tricopter Part #5 PSoC firmware: EEPROM emulation

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    20131126_100016 (1).jpg

    Previously, I wrote a blog post about how I displayed the count of my unseen Facebook notifications on a 7-segment display7-segment display connected to the BeagleBone Black BeagleBone Black: BeagleBone Black displays Facebook notifications on Adafruit 7-segment.  I decided to do a similar task with theBeagleBone BlackBeagleBone Black& Adafruit 8x8 LED matrixAdafruit 8x8 LED matrix.  My most recent post that shows how it is interfaced with the BBB: Adafruit 8x8 LED matrix controlled by BeagleBone Black.

    20131126_100049 (1).jpg

    Here's the Python script that grabs the unseen notification count from the Facebook API and then displays it on the 8x8 matrix8x8 matrix.  One notification is one pixel.


    Drew Fustini

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    Hi gang,


    like the subject says, What in the world are those pas 1, pas 3 and so on that are printed on the schematic?


    They really clutter the snot up on the schematic and I'd love to be able to delete those from the schematic


    how's it done?


    I've tried turning off various layers in the schematic layout, but no joy!





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    If you have questions about Arduino, please post your question here!

    Don't forget to sign up for email notifications under the "Actions" box so you'll see when I answer your question.



    Jeremy Blum

    Jeremy is an Electrical and Computer Engineering Student at Cornell University. He has been building microcontroller projects since high school, from a prototype prosthetic hand with a novel control scheme, to a nerf gun that fires at the intruders and uploads their picture to the web.


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    If you need help on anything technical relating to radio or wireless communication, please post your question here!

    Don't forget to sign up for email notifications under the "Actions" box so you'll see when I answer your question.




    Christopher Pinter

    As the founder and President of Pinter Electronics Consultants Chris has been instrumental in developing the business from its inception in 2005 to its current status.  He has over 15 years of experience in radio and wireless communication hardware design and product development. Chris graduated from the Okanagan University with a diploma in Electronic Engineering Technology and the British Columbia Institute of Technology with a Bachelor of Technology in Electronics.


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    One of the cool things about working at a hardware startup is that you get exposure to every part of a device.  In larger companies, there is typically a person that takes care of the power, one for analog, maybe a touch screen expert and a bunch of engineers for the digital stuff.  When I was part of a startup, I was the power guy, and the analog guy, and I also had to do all the digital stuff.


    Power is an interesting topic because it is one of the few areas where you get to use inductors and large diodes.  Plus, when you do PCB layout, you get to use large thick traces around the power supplies, which I always think is pretty cool.  The analysis of the power circuit is usually done through SPICE models rather than RTL simulations.  In our case I will just do a few hand calculations to make sure that we are in the rough ballpark. An additional reason is that we don’t know what type of loads the motors will induce on the power supply, and modeling these motors would be an exercise worthy of a few weeks on their own.  We’ll make a few assumptions about the motor load and go from there.

    Most of the digital electronics will be running at 3.3V.  This includes the PSoC 4 along with any supporting chips.  Internally, the PSoC has a linear regulator that powers the core logic at 1.8V, so that simplifies the power distributions a bit. The power used by the PSoC will be very low, and we can probably find a simple LDO for the job, irrespective of the power inefficiency.


    On the motor controller end, the power regulations is a bit more complicated.  If we are using a single cell battery, we’ll need to boost the voltage to drive the motor controller.  The chosen motor controller part, the ST L6234 allows input voltages from 7V to 42V.  We can stay on the lower end of the power voltage to avoid using expensive high voltage rating capacitors.  There are many choices for a boost controller, but we have a few conditions that can help us narrow down the field of candidates.  We are not going for extremely small sizes like controllers for cell phones. We also don’t need anything that’ll source more than 1A.  In terms of efficiency, anything above 80% will do, though I don’t have the necessary equipment to make proper efficiency measurements.  Cheap is also good, so this probably rules out all of Linear Tech’s controllers (it’s the truth!).  In the end I found a part from TI’s Simple Switcher catalog, the LM62014.


    The datasheet is pretty straight forward, and the design is rather simple.  It is a single FET controller (the top switch remains a diode, and not a FET), with a more or less average Rds (the FET’s on resistance) rating. Because the Rds value is mediocre at best, and we are using a diode for the top switch, efficiency will suffer a bit.




    Ripple voltage is negligible since we are powering motors.  However, we do need to worry about keeping the boost controller in continuous mode.  This is because a boost controller in discontinuous mode does not respond well to transient loads.  I anticipate that the motors would be jerking around during compensation, so it is an important point to keep in mind.


    A switching regulator in continuous mode simply means that the inductor in the power supply never fully empties.  Keeping the controller within this mode is a matter of selecting the inductor size. For a boost topology, this means that we need a certain minimum load to sink the current out of the inductor.  If the load drops below a minimum amount of current, then the inductor will empty, the power supply will have to regulate in discontinuous mode.

    Let’s look at how to determine this minimum current.


    First, the design parameters:


    Forward drop voltage across the selected diode

    VDiode = 0.4V


    Resistance of the bottom FET switch when it is turned on

    Rds = 500 mOhm


    Frequency of switching for this particular controller

    Fsw = 1.6 MHz, Tsw = 0.625 uS


    Input voltage

    Vin = 5V


    Output voltage

    Vout = 10V


    Peak current

    Iout = 1A


    Voltage across the bottom FET switch when it is turned on

    Vsw = Rds * Iout = 500 mOhm * 1A = 0.5V


    Value of the inductor selected for this power supply

    Inductor = 10uH


    Duty cycle that the controller needs to maintain 1A load with 10V output

    Duty Cycle = Vout + Vdiode - Vin / (Vout + Vdiode - Vsw) = 55%


    Time that the FET is turned on during one switching cycle

    Ton = Duty Cycle * Tsw = 0.344 uS


    Now that we have defined our design parameters, we can start analyzing the controller when the FET is turned on.  During this short period, the voltage across inductor is the input voltage minus the voltage across the FET.  The circuit looks like this:




    The voltage across the inductor is then:

    Vind = Vin - Vsw = 4.5V


    Now we can look at di/dt. Using the voltage and changes in current relationship, we get:

    V = L * di/dt

    4.5V = 10uF * di / 0.344 uS

    di = 0.155 A


    This means that the current through the inductor swings by 0.155 A during a switching cycle when the output is 1 A.  The graph of the current through the inductor would look like this:




    We need Imid to be high enough such that Ilow is above zero.  If Imid is less than half the swing, the current through the inductor would fall below zero, resulting is discontinuous mode.  The amount of current between Imid and Ilow can be estimated by dividing di in half:

    Imid = di / 2 = 0.155 / 2 = 0.0775 A


    Imid and the load current is related to the duty cycle, from this relationship, we can determine the minimum load current:

    Imid = Iload / (1 – duty cycle) = Iload / ( 1 – 0.55)

    Iload = Imid * (1 - 0.55) = 35mA


    This means that using a 10uF inductor, we need keep the load current above 35mA.  The quiescent current of a single L6234 device is listed as 6.5 mA.  With three of them (one for each of the three axis), that would drain almost 20mA.  I am hoping that just keeping the motors still will consume at least another 15mA in order to keep the power supply happy. If this is not the case, then we will need to size a larger inductor.


    That’s all the power analysis for now.

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    Hi all,


    I found a schematic about a AVR development board and modified it with a 8 pin socket. Im a newby with electronics so i hoped somebody could tell me if this could work and if it doesn't were i made a mistake.


    Hope to get a respond!


    AVR dev updated.png

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    If you need help on anything technical relating to Gennum products, please post your question here!

    Don't forget to sign up for email notifications under the "Actions" box so you'll see when Alan answers your question.




    Alan Hutton

    Alan is a Global Distribution Sales and Marketing expert at Gennum.  He can help you with your questions about any Gennum product.


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    You can watch Part 2 here now- We will update the main player on Monday.  Enjoy!


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